by Bill Wilson, Director, IIABA Virtual University
One of the few email discussion lists I participate in is a Yahoo! Groups list called “RiskList.” Recently, the topic of discussion was illegal aliens and workers compensation. Some issues discussed include whether or not these workers are covered under workers compensation laws and what kind of impact they may be having on loss experience.
Immigrant workers may be more inclined to take risks not commensurate with their skill levels. In cost-cutting measures that played a role in their hiring to begin with, they also may not receive proper safety equipment.
This article addresses the issue of whether or not illegal aliens are entitled to benefits under state workers compensation laws. The purpose is not to opine about the situation from a political or social standpoint, nor to comment on construction workmanship issues that have been addressed in the press.
Of 9.3 million illegal adults in this country, 7.2 million (77%) are employed and comprise about 5% of the entire U.S. workforce. However, they comprise a far more disproportionate percentage in some industries, such as 24% of farm workers, 17% of cleaning workers, 14% of construction workers, and 12% of food preparers. Within an industry, illegal workers may comprise high percentages of specific (often more hazardous) occupations…e.g., 36% of all insulation workers and 29% of all roofing employees are estimated to be illegal aliens. In general, illegal workers tend to be younger than other workers.
Because of language barriers and lack of training and experience, some experts believe that the exposure to injury may be significantly greater for illegal aliens than other workers. According to an Associated Press story, Mexican workers are about 80% more likely to die from a work injury than native-born workers. In several Southern and Western states, these workers are four times more likely to die than U.S. citizens performing similar jobs.
Given language barriers that might interfere with effective supervision and training, along with the frequent lack of experience, there is a fear that illegal aliens may be at greater risk due to several additional compounding risk factors. For example, because of the reasons many are here, they might be more inclined to take risks not commensurate with their skill levels. In cost-cutting measures that played a role in their hiring to begin with, they may not receive proper safety equipment. And, because they are inclined to avoid attention being directed at their illegal status, they may be hired or assigned to more hazardous jobs by employers who feel they are far less likely to file workers compensation claims….
….which brings us to the topic of this article, which is to answer the question, “Are illegal aliens entitled to state workers compensation benefits?” The short answer to this (as often the case with insurance coverage questions) is, “It depends.” In a significant majority of states, illegals ARE entitled to workers compensation benefits. However, this is not true in every state. In addition, the types of benefits or extent of coverage may be restricted in some states depending on a number of factors.
Whether or not an illegal alien is entitled to workers compensation benefits will be established in the state statutes or by regulatory or court decision. Are illegal aliens “employees” as defined by most state statutes? If so, are they entitled to all or some of the statutorily-prescribed benefits? In trying to answer these questions, I’ve constructed a state-by-state chart that references each state’s statute, lists any known case law or regulatory ruling, and provides commentary on whether or not it is likely that illegals are entitled to benefits:
Workers Compensation and Illegal Aliens Chart (Word document format)
As you’ll see on the chart, most states do allow illegal aliens to claim workers compensation benefits. The only state that expressly excludes benefits by statute is Wyoming. The only state that has excluded benefits across the board by court decision was Virginia, but the decision was subsequently overridden by legislation. The vast majority of other states permit at least the claiming of medical benefits by illegals. Some states (e.g., Georgia, Michigan, and Pennsylvania) attach restrictions to disability benefits. Other states (e.g., California, Nebraska, and Nevada) limit or preclude vocational rehabilitation benefits.
This chart is a work in progress, so information is not currently available for all states, but it is for most. Also, keep in mind that where case law is absent (to the best of our knowledge), any opinion about how statutory law might respond is conjecture on our part, based on how courts in other states have ruled on similar statutory wording. As statutes are reviewed and case law uncovered, this chart will be revised on an ongoing basis. If you are aware of any inaccuracies or missing information, please email corrections to me at Bill.Wilson@iiaba.net.